Our first aim consisted in rating the influence that different sources of knowledge could have in the representation of animals, plant life and artifact categories, rather than in those of living and non-living beings, as many previous studies on this subject have made. The Categorical Organization of Semantic and Lexical Knowledge in the Brain.pdf. in the context of other fields of investigation such as cognitive neuropsychology. In Khosrow-Pour D.B.A., M. 5. PROTOTYPICALITY, DISTINCTIVENESS, AND INTERCORRELATION: ANALYSES OF THE SEMANTIC ATTRIBUTES OF LIVING AND NONLIVING CONCEPTS, Category specific semantic loss in dementia of Alzheimer's type Functional–anatomical correlations from cross-sectional analyses, Category specific semantic loss in dementia of Alzheimer's type. II) encephalitis. Both patients tended to omit function words and finite verb inflections, but Case 2 did so much more than did Case 1. From this perspective, knowledge becomes an organizational asset that can be managed, shared with partners or provided as a service to others. Contributions, The contents and topologies of inter-document linkages, such as citations and references among scientific literature, have system to access scientific papers in computer science discipline by reference linking technique. Explicit Knowledge: Explicit knowledge is knowledge that can be verbalized, stored, accessed, and shared with others. However, an update of the representation itself needs only constant time, making it highly attractive for building a SLAM algorithm. An advantage for artefacts is typically associated with an aetiology of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (which predominantly affects temporolimbic structures) whilst the opposite pattern more often follows damage to frontoparietal regions, ... Several clinical observations of aphasics support this assumption. The Categorical Organization of Semantic and Lexical Knowledge in the Brain.pdf. It has been proposed that words are stored in a functional structure which consists of a semantic system and modality-specific input and output lexicons. Since Pick, very few cases of autotopagnosia have been reported.3-8 Nevertheless, this symptom is regularly mentioned in all discussions on disorders of corporeal awareness because it seems to represent the most complete and convincing example of disorientation of the human body and, thus, it apparently provides strong support to the reality of the concept of "body schema." For example, Aristotle’s effort t… It shows that a knowledge-based hierarchy is a natural way to organize the acquisition of knowledge when matching problems with those who know how to solve them is costly. The essence of this knowledge, either individual or collective, is often perceived as a dynamic array of experiences, values, contextual information and expert insights. Your data is automatically structured for search engines to recognize and show to your prospects in their search queries. On one hand, it is commonly thought that, This papers provides two contributions to the problem of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM): First we discuss properties of the problem itself and of the intended semantics of an uncertain map representation, with the main idea of "representing certainty of relations despite the uncertainty of positions". Feature Comparison Model 3. SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language (SPARQL): It is a powerful query language and widely used Application Programmer Interface (API) for accessing linked data collections online. He was mainly influenced by the ideas of Reiff and Scheers, who in 1959 made the distinction between two primary forms of memory. More coherent categories play a privileged role in the organization of our semantic knowledge; coherent cat- egories are the ones that are most easily learned and represented (8, 15, 16). ... All these studies have, indeed, shown that the loss of lexical-semantic knowledge is more striking when the lesions are on the left side than the loss of nonverbal representations when the right side is more damaged. Unfortunately, after 8 weeks, the encephalitis recurred and the patient was left demented and untestable. She had great difficulty reading pronounceable nonwords, but she could correctly read irregular words. OVERVIEW; METHODOLOGY; SIMPLE MODELS OF SEMANTIC ORGANIZATION; NETWORK MODELS OF SEMANTIC ORGANIZATION; FRAMES AND SCRIPTS AS SCHEMA; OVERVIEW We have already noted the impressive capacity of long term memory. Some technologies have been fully studied and utilized upon this meaningful The organization of conceptual knowledge: the evidence from category-speciﬁc semantic deﬁcits Alfonso Caramazza and Bradford Z. Mahon Cognitive Neuropsychology Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Harvard University, 33 Kirkland Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Questions about the organization of conceptual knowl- Organization Science This paper proposes a paradigm for managing the dynamic aspects of organizational knowledge creating processes. This set of predictions will be labelled 'the sensory-motor model of semantic knowledge'. The present survey develops a previous position paper, in which I suggested that the multimodal semantic impairment observed in advanced stages of semantic dementia is due to the joint disruption of pictorial and verbal representations, subtended by the right and left anterior temporal lobes, rather than to the loss of a unitary, amodal semantic system. Semantic knowledge Blindness Supramodality Category-based organization fMRI Multivoxel pattern analysis 1. Semantic memory includes things that are common knowledge, such as the names of colors, the sounds of letters, the capitals of countries and other basic facts acquired over a … to model scientific literature and their interlinked relationships, we develop a domain-specific ontology to analyze contents Organizations have been successfully utilizing data lakes and data warehouses in order to unify enterprise data in a shared space. The aim of this chapter is to present the state of the art research in semantic organizational knowledge. Almost every individual with aphasia has some reduction in the repertoire of words available for speech and requires more time than normal to produce words in response to either pictures or questions. In more recent times, our knowledge of these hemispheric asymmetries has been increased by new lines of research which have investigated: (a) asymmetries in emotional behaviors in animals; (b) neuroanatomical asymmetries in structures playing a critical role in various aspects of emotions, and (c) behavioral and emotional disorders in patients with degenerative brain diseases, temporal lobe epilepsy, and abnormal kinds of emotion regulations Two types of URIs exist: the Uniform Resource Locator (URLs) and Uniform Resource Names (URNs) which follow known syntax and protocols to. On the other hand, a quantitative difference between the left verbal and the right perceptual components of the conceptual representations could be easily explained by the sensory-motor model of conceptual knowledge (e.g., [12. Case 1 had an infarction involving precentral gyrus, subjacent white matter, and posterior and superior aspects of the insula, largely sparing Broca's area. It also points out the limitations of the technique and some of its recent developments, opening the way for further comprehension of language processing. A case of complete Kluver-Bucy syndrome is reported. This selective impairment of phonological reading in the context of partly preserved semantic abilities was interpreted as confirmation of the dissociability of language functions in primary degenerative dementia. More specifically, Linked Data is the set of recommended best practice for exposing, sharing, and connecting data, information, and knowledge on the Semantic Web using Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and Resource Description Framework (RDF). A ConceptScheme is analogous to a vocabulary, thesaurus, or other way of organizing concepts. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Originally, the concept of ontology was created in the branch of philosophy that studies being or existence, the kind of things that exist. A complete Enterprise 'Semantic' Knowledge Graph. It allows for machine-actionable description of the structure of these knowledge organization systems (KOS) and provides an excellent Prof. Dr. Guido Gainotti Verb production was far superior to noun production in single word naming. The Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) is a Semantic Web framework, based on the Resource Description Framework (RDF) for thesauri, classification schemes and simple ontologies. A multiple single-case strategy revealed not only individuals with consistent advantages for. The syntactic category effects could be proven (by hierarchical log-linear analysis) not to be an artefact of imageability differences between verbs, adjectives and nouns. Her reading by a direct visual-semantic route appeared to be associated with relatively intact object naming, concrete word reading, and irregular word reading. The remem… One form was entitled "remembrances", the other "memoria". This Special Issue of Brain Sciences aims to update our knowledge of these lines of research, providing new data and reviews of these advancements. "State of the Art in Semantic Organizational Knowledge.". IN 1908 and 1922, Pick1,2 described two patients suffering respectively from senile dementia and internal hydrocephalus, who made striking errors in pointing to various parts of the body on verbal command, although they recognized the part as soon as their hand happened to touch it. Gainotti, Guido Brain and Cognition , v75 n3 p299-309 Apr 2011 The rest of this paper is organized as follows. At the very least, this would seem to indicate that the cortex does massive amounts of parallel computation. The types of representation and the styles of computation in the brain appear to be very different from the symbolic expressions and logical inferences that are used in sentence-logic models of cognition. This dissociation between concrete nouns and motion verbs found for the AD patients is discussed in terms of differences in the nature of semantic representations involving multiple physical and functional attributes in the case of concrete nouns, but only motion attributes in the case of motion verbs. category are lost before more general superordinate knowledge. Tulving constructed a proposal to distinguish between episodic memoryand what he termed semantic memory. Semantic Knowledge Discovery, Organization and Use November, 14 and 15, 2008 (Friday and Saturday) Warren Weaver Hall, New York University. information to improve the organization, analysis and evaluation of scientific digital libraries. This paper explores the hypothesis that an important part of the cortex can be modeled as a connectionist computer that is especially suited for parallel problem solving. Furthermore, results of the study showed: (a) that the visual modality was considered by our subjects as the main source of knowledge for all the categories taken into account; (b) that in biological categories the next more important source of information was represented by other perceptual modalities, whereas. In fact, these concepts rely heavily on Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Ontology. Semantic organizational knowledge refers to the Semantic Web and Linked Data technologies that are applied to the principles and procedures of organizational knowledge. Network models 1. Beyond a strong frequency effect, a marked grammatical class difference was noted. Her reading disorder could be characterized as a disturbance of assembled phonology. In clinical practice, a mixture of several varieties of anomia is frequent, but differentiation can often be made, particularly when related clinical signs are taken into account. Tacit Knowledge: This is knowledge acquired through personal experience that is difficult to express. Semantic memory :cognitive models• A semantic network is a method of representing knowledge as a system of connections between concepts in memory• knowledge is organized based on meaning, such that semantically related concepts are interconnected. This test battery will be administered to patients with right temporal lobe atrophy to see if face recognition disorders often observed in these patients must be considered as an instance of associative prosopagnosia or as an aspect of a multimodal people recognition disorder. In one, the patient appears to have a problem saying the word while in the second he appears to have a problem knowing the word desired. Available via license: CC BY 3.0. The AD patients, however, demonstrated priming effects for concrete nouns, but not for motion verbs. It is also transmittable in formal language as clear facts, propositions and symbols. We conclude that this patient's impairments stemmed from a disturbance restricted to the subsystem for active judgement and selection of representations in the phonological output lexicon. This paper studies how communication allows for the specialized acquisition of knowledge. It is also known as the individual know-how, techniques, processes, and expertise that is considered embedded in the organization’s knowledge base. During recent years, its study has largely benefited from new medical imaging technologies among which positron emission tomography (PET), allowing for direct observation of in vivo human brain activity. All rights reserved. that match the following scope of the Special Issue are still welcome! We asked 20 normal volunteers to provide properties of 64 concrete items, drawn from living and nonliving categories, by completing simple sentence stems (e.g., an owl is __, has __, can__). His speech was slow and dysarthric, consisting of short disconnected phrases with some omission of lexical verbs. Semantic cognition refers to the goal-directed activation of semantic knowledge, encompassing the meanings of words, sounds, actions, symbols, and faces. Imagine: 'Drag and Drop' Technology that Automatically' builds a knowledge graph. The normal control subjects demonstrated automatic activation for both concrete nouns and motion verbs. In aphasia output, one of two distinctly different naming problems may be apparent. we introduce an automatic summary generation algorithm to create objective descriptions from other scholars’ perspectives Organizational Knowledge (OK): It refers to the collective knowledge and skills possessed by employees of an organization. Tacit knowledge known as “know-what”, is easy to identify, store, retrieve and disseminate. Why Are the Right and Left Hemisphere Conceptual Representations Different? Neither patient showed impairment in any other area of language performance. The Organization and Dissolution of Semantic-Conceptual Knowledge: Is the "Amodal Hub" the Only Plausible Model? More precisely, an ontology defines the meaning of the terms in that vocabulary together with their inner relationships (De Araújo, 2015; Chandrasekaran et al., January 1999). As human knowledge comes in many forms and shapes, previous research conducted by Nonaka (2007, chapter 3), Choo (1996) and Spender (1993), has identified the existence of several types of knowledge in organized contexts including explicit knowledge, tacit knowledge, cultural knowledge and embedded knowledge. received increasing research interests in recent years. This paper reviews some of the important advances in the understanding of single-word processing provided by PET, integrating them, We survey several recent advances on applying semidefinite programming (SDP) techniques to globally solve mixed-integer quadratically constrained programs (MIQCPs), or to construct convex relaxations with better tightness/complexity ratios. The printed version of notes will be distributed at the symposium. Our paper does not aim to be a comprehensive survey on MIQCPs, but rather, to be supplementary to other survey papers in literature. The troubles usually described in Kluver-Bucy syndrome as psychic blindness, colour agnosia, prosopagnosia, auditive and tactile agnosia were present. This loss of semantic knowledge disrupts the normal organization of semantic memory in AD patients and results in aberrations in their network of semantic representations. Theoretical accounts of semantic knowledge posit that relations between concepts provide organizational structure that converts information known about individual entities into an interconnected network in which concepts can be linked by many types of relations (e.g., taxonomic, thematic). In opposition, the domain-specificity theory posits that knowledge may instead be codified within a more abstract organization of semantic attributes independently from sensorimotor processing (Caramazza and Shelton, 1998, Mahon et al., 2009). From an early age, children play sorting and matching games. The present survey develops a previous position paper, in which I suggested that the multimodal semantic impairment observed in advanced stages of Semantic Dementia are due to the joint disruption of pictorial and verbal representations, subtended by the right and left anterior temporal lobes, rather than to the loss of a unitary, amodal semantic system. One of the deepest mysteries of the function of cortex is that neural processing times are only about one hundred times as fast as the fastest response times for complex behavior. Semantic knowledge is a crucial aspect of higher cognition. The patient had difficulty in phonological similarity judgements of pictures, but performed normally on semantic similarity judgements. On the other hand, a large amount of effort has been devoted to find more practical ways to exploit strong SDP relaxations. The semantic memory focuses much on the factual and conceptual knowledge about the world and the way it expressed in terms of words. The patient fails to name objects on confrontation, but readily explains or demonstrates their use, proving that he recognizes the object but cannot produce the verbal symbol. The neural substrate can be interpreted as a commitment to data structures and algorithms that compute invariants fast enough to explain the behavioral response times. In this paper, we present It was originally defined by Polanyi (1958). This interesting pattern of preserved semantic information and disrupted phonological processing is unusual in dementia and contrasts with the severe dysnomia of patients with surface dyslexia who are able to read by the indirect, assembly-of-phonology route and show better reading of nonwords than irregular words. The chapter focuses on the clinical aspects of semantic disorders. Then, the term was co-opted by Artificial Intelligence researchers to represent computational models for automated reasoning. The neural organization of semantic memory: Electrophysiological activity suggests feature-based segregation. The only aphasic syndrome for which an important role of semantic disorders was admitted was the so called “transcortical sensory aphasia,” caused by a lesion of the posterior parieto-temporo- occipital association areas and characterized, from the clinical point of view, by a severe lexical comprehension disorder with production of verbal–semantic paraphasias, in a context of fluent speech without repetition disorders. However, providing a consistent Semantic-Web style explicit representation of an organization’s data semantics is only a first step for leveraging organizational knowledge. Beitrag zur Lehre vom Bewusstsein des eigenen Körpers, Complete Kluver-Bucy syndrome following Herpes Simplex type II encephalitis[SYNDROME DE KLUVER-BUCY HUMAIN COMPLET APRES UNE ENCEPHALITE A HERPES SIMPLEX TYPE 2], Interaction between vision and language in category-specific semantic impairment, The oyster with four legs: a neuropsychological study on the interaction of visual and semantic information, Cortical connections and parallel processing: Structure and function. See: https://www.mdpi.com/journal/brainsci/special_issues/Emotions_Right_Hemisphere To Support Customers in Easily and Affordably Obtaining the Latest Peer-Reviewed Research, Copyright © 1988-2020, IGI Global - All Rights Reserved, Additionally, Enjoy an Additional 5% Pre-Publication Discount on all Forthcoming Reference Books, Kone, Mamadou Tadiou. She was remarkable because her relatively preserved object naming and semantic categorization abilities contrasted with severe deficits in speech fluency, oral reading, inability to execute spoken and written commands, and severely impaired auditory-verbal short-term memory. "Semantic networks, in particular, dynamic semantic networks based on real language usage, are useful to explore the organization of human semantic (or conceptual) knowledge … There is another word-finding problem that is noted in the conversational speech of fluent aphasia. We report a patient with disturbed word finding for given letters, but not for specific categories. The popular view of this type of knowledge is a form of knowledge encoded in organizational practices, procedures and routines. Connectionist models are used as examples to illustrate neural representation and computation in the pronouncing of English text, and in the extracting of shape parameters from shaded images. In reading aloud she made visual and morphological errors, but no semantic errors. We survey some attempts along this direction, which we conceptually categorized into three main approaches: (1) use first-order methods to solve SDP relaxations approximately; (2) exploit dual optimal solution to derive reformulations; (3) generate cuts in the original variable space by solving the (dual) SDP relaxations heuristically. Organization of Semantic Knowledge in the Human Brain: Toward a Resolution in the Next Millennium A semantic data layer delivers the best value for enterprises that are looking to support the growing consumers of big data, business users, by adding the “meaning” or “business knowledge” behind their data as an additional layer of abstraction or as a bridge between complex data assets and front-end applicationssuch as enterprise search, business analytics and BI da… Its central theme is that organizational knowledge is created through a continuous dialogue between tacit and explicit knowledge. It plays a central role in enabling the processing and sharing of knowledge within an accepted domain. In contrast, collective knowledge initiatives in an organization consist of creating and sharing knowledge for improving business and increasing productivity. The chapter discusses semantic disorders in aphasia and dementia. based on the ontology. It is often said that humans are inherent organizers. It is well known that on many MIQCPs, convex relaxations using SDP techniques produce some of the strongest bounds. Explicit knowledge is intuitive, based on experience, intractable and refers to knowledge known as “know-how”. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. "State of the Art in Semantic Organizational Knowledge." Therefore, there should be no prevalence of the left hemisphere verbal semantic knowledge over the right hemisphere perceptually-based conceptual knowledge, because verbal and pictorial information should be separately processed in (and be independently disrupted by pathology affecting) each hemisphere. In the context of focal brain injury, selective loss of semantic knowledge in the domain of either natural kinds or artefacts is usually considered to reflect the differential importance of temporal and frontoparietal regions to the representations of perceptual and functional attributes, respectively. tion processes. This is a radical departure from the a priori, introspection-based strategy that has characterized most previous work in epistemology. Semantic queries can also be asked to discover interesting patterns in scientific libraries in order Semantic memory disorders are difficulties in attaining the full meaning of words and/or of percepts that can be frequently found in patients with focal or diffuse forms of brain pathology. This computer can be thought of as computing hierarchies of sensorimotor invariants. The cerebral cortex is a rich and diverse structure that is the basis of intelligent behavior. Or such a system 's conceptual or organizational structure is another word-finding problem that is noted in the form intangible... Than did Case 1 remembrances '', the other `` organization of semantic knowledge '' models automated... ) organization of semantic and Lexical knowledge in mind 2 ) semantic-network models 13 a variety of observations. 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