After an examination of this material, it is apparent that the cruel treatment of the slaves coupled with the inhuman conditions aboard the slavers resulted in high mortality rates while causing the survivors to emerge physically weak as well as mentally terrified. Grief typically filled their distressing eyes with tears during their coerced crooning (Dow, 1968: 195). A slavers’ Logbook, or 20 years’ residence in Africa. Q. Primary Source: Olaudah Equiano Describes the Middle Passage, 1789. The auctioneer sat on a high chair at one end of the room, and the slaves stood on a stool in front of him. The slaves that were carried ashore and sold in a dying state seldom survived for very long (Falconbridge, 1973: 33). The Middle Passage was the middle stop of the "triangular trade": European ships would first sail to the western coast of Africa to trade a variety of goods for people who had been captured in war, kidnapped, or sentenced to enslavement as punishment for a crime; they would then transport enslaved people to the Americas and sell them in order to purchase sugar, rum, and other products; … With each meal, they were given one cup of water. He goes on to state that the sharks will follow the slave ships across the Atlantic, waiting to feed on any slaves that enter the water (Bosman, 1967: 281, 282). Arguments and quarrels typically broke out between slaves who needed to reach the tubs and those that needed to be crawled over. The darkies were obliged to go through every sort of motion. An Account of the Slave Trade off the Coast of Africa. Middle Passage, the forced voyage of enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to the New World. The speculum oris had wooden dividers that were forced into the slaves’ mouth and a mechanism was turned causing the jaws to be cranked open. Middle Passage Sources. The Middle Passage was the part of the Atlantic slave trade where African slaves were brought to the Americas on slave ships.Millions of African people were shipped to the Americas over the Middle Passage. “Many of the Negroes have letters cut on the breast or shoulder…whereby on the vessel’s arrival to the Americas; owners could recognize their property (Hill, 1993: 37). The Middle Passage: Voyage into Bondage. It is one of history’s most horrific chapters, showing the human capacity for both cruelty and insensitivity and strength and survival. Are these primary or secondary sources? ( Log Out /  Th… The Oxford English Dictionary They endured the horrors of the Middle Passage, the journey by ship from West African slave trading ports to the New World during which an estimated two million captives died. Cambridge, Maryland: Cornell Maritime Press, Inc. Drake, Rich’D. Usually, at the first sign of scabs a slave would be thrown overboard to be devoured by the sharks that seemed to follow slave ships “as if they smelt the sickness” (Drake, 1972: 49). Upon a given signal, or time, the purchasers would race into the holding pin and grab or lay claim to the best and healthiest. Falconbridge reports, “About eight o’clock in the morning the Negroes are generally brought upon deck. This paper gives the reader an idea about the cruel methods and inhuman conditions of The Middle Passage that left many enslaved Africans dead and caused many more to emerge physically weak and mentally terrified. “The women, in particular, clang to each other in agonies fiercely to be conceived, shrieking through excess of terror, at the savage manner in which their brutal purchasers rushed upon and seized them” (Falconbridge, 1973: 35). Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016. Before going to shore captains, mindful that the slaves feared being devoured by the Europeans, arranged for local Creole slaves to come aboard the vessels to pacify the terrified captives. Dysentery, one of the common diseases mentioned above, was uncontrollable diarrhea mixed with blood. Falconbridge likened it to a slaughterhouse (1973: 24, 25). 83, No. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. They told us we were not to be eaten, but to work, and were soon to go on land, where we should see many of our country people” (1999: 35). JMR. According to Falconbridge, “Most of the slaves have such an aversion to the horse beans, that unless they are narrowly watched, when fed upon deck, they will throw them overboard or in each others faces when they quarrel” (1973: 22). Some of the worksheets for this concept are Primary and secondary source work, Week six identifying primary and secondary sources, Comparing primary and secondary sources lesson plan, Primary secondary sources, Teaching primary and secondary sources, Primary sources, Primary secondary and tertiary sources in … Conditions inside the holds were inhuman. Slave ships and Slaving. They were then branded with the identifying marks of their owners, using hot irons (Drake, 1972: 43). Their shackles and the limited space made it cumbersome and painful to crawl over others to reach the tubs. The transport of African slaves formed one leg of the Triangular Trade, an economic system that drastically altered the societies of four continents. Other common inflictions suffered by slaves were dysentery or “bloody flux”, scurvy and the most feared, smallpox. The Middle Passage did not begin with the transatlantic voyage, but with the capture and sale of Africans, and ended with their forced ‘adjustment’ to life in the Americas. The first visible signs would have been the appearance of raised red spots on the skin. Neither the younger nor the elder Pliny mention the names. Next come the lesions which ulcerate soon after formation” (Razi, 2000). Mineola, New York: Dover Publications Inc. Falconbridge, Alexander. The food was then shoved down their throats through a funnel (Thomas, 1997: 420). The American Yawp, Joseph Locke and Ben Wright, eds., last modified In each partitioned off apartment within the hold, there were three or four tubs roughly two feet by two feet that were to be used as latrines. Exterminated by the Bloody Flux. While they were in, the creatures attacked them by throwing rocks against the walls of the cabin. Anti-slavery sources. 3, Summer 1998 PR PEER-REVIEWED PERIODICAL Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s). It was one leg of the triangular trade route that took goods from Europe to Africa, Africans to work as slaves in the Americas and the West Indies, and items produced on the plantations back to Europe. Fifty Days on board a slave vessel. Gregory Ablavsky et al., “British North America,” Daniel Johnson, ed., in The American Yawp ... Mustakeem, Sowande M. Slavery at Sea: Terror, Sex, and Sickness in the Middle Passage. 1967. The horrified slaves that were not yet restrained with shackles, realizing they would never see their country and kin again chose to jump overboard to certain death by either drowning or shark attack (Dow, 1968: 70, 74). In another account by James Arnold, a surgeon aboard Captain Joseph Williams ship the Ruby, describes his captain’s victimization of young female slaves. The cold-blooded state of affairs and the brutal process of The Middle Passage began on the coast of West Africa where enslaved Africans were held prisoners by their African captors. “And some of them, by constantly lying in the blood and mucus, that had flowed from those afflicted with the flux…have their flesh much sooner rubbed off than those who have only to contend with the mere friction of the ship” (Falconbridge, 1973: 28). Munford 1991,, Clarence J. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016. Change ). 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